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Yadda Garuruwan Jos Ke Kokarin Hadin Kai Bayan Shekaru Cikin Rikici (1)

Wannan rubutu fassarar kaso na farko ne a jerin labaran da suka mayar da hankali akan Unguwar Mai Damisa da kuma Balkazai, da yadda suke kokarin hadin kai bayan rikicin Jos na 2001. Nathaniel Bivan ne ya rubuta cikin Ingilishi, Aliyu Dahiru ya fassara.

Fassarawa: Aliyu Dahiru

Rayuwar Mary Monday na tafiya cikin jin dadi har sai da ta rasa mijinta a 2008, ta rasa gidanta a 2010, ta kuma rasa danta a 2019. 

Shi ma wani malamin addinin Musulinci mai suna Sherif Aminu na zaune cikin godiyar Allah. Sai daga baya aka rushe gidansa (ya gina), aka sake rushewa (ya sake ginawa), aka kuma kara rushewa. 

Wadannan mutane biyu na zaune ne a unguwoyin Balakazai da Mai Damisa – wasu garuruwa da suka dade basa ga-maciji da juna. 


Daga baya wata kungiya tayi karfin guiwar hada kai da mutanen garin sannan aka samu kwanciyar hankali a wadannan garuruwa da suke makotakar juna. 

Dajin Mutuwa 

A farkon rikicin Jos da ya faru a 2001, Unguwar Mai Damisa da take dauke da musulmi, da kuma Balkazai da ke dauke da kiristoci, suka kaure da fada. 

Mazauna garuruwan duk sun canja gidaje. Musulmai suka koma Mai Damisa su kuma kiristoci suka tare a Balkazai har sai da ya zama babu mabiyin addinin wani a unguwar da wani yake da yawan mabiya. Daga nan dagar ta fara kima aka fara buga gangar yaki. 

Duk lokacin da aka ji labarin ana wani rikici a cikin birni, sai al’ummar wadannan yankuna su dauki makamai su afkawa junansu. Duk lokacin da aka samu gawar wani daga daya tsagin, sai daya tsagin ya zargi dayan da cewa shi ya kashe masa nasa. 

Wannan layi da aka ja ya kirkiri wasu matasa da suke labewa a bayan daji ta gefen duwatsu da suke kai hare-hare da martani akan wadanda suka dauka makiyansu ne. Wannan ya ja har wajen mutane 150 ne suka mutu a 2015, a cewar Aminu wanda yanzu haka shugaban matasa ne a unguwar Mai Damisa. 

Pwakin Jacob Choji, Daraktan Youth Initiative Against Violence and Human Rights Abuse (YIAVHA), ya fadawa HumAngle cewa an dauki shekaru ana rigingimu a tsakanin wadannan al’ummatai kafin su yarda su ajiye makamansu kuma su share wannan daji domin su yi maganin masu labewa suna kai hari. Kafin wannan lokaci an yi asarar rayuka, an rushe gidaje kuma an lalata kayayyaki. 

A yau, wani sashi na Balakazai da Unguwar Mai Damisa zai tabbatar maka da haka. Ga alamun gidaje nan da aka taba rusawa da kuma guraren da suka zama kufai. Daga kasan wani rafi kuwa za ka iya ganin wasu gidaje kamar ba a kammalasu ba saboda an konasu ne tun a wancan lokacin.

Hoto: gidajen da rikici ya ritsa da su

Daga baya komai ya canja. 

A shekarar 2019, matasan sun so su kara tsallaka wannan rafi domin su kai farmakin mai da martani a unguwar Balakazai. Mallam Aminu ne ya nuna kin amincewarsa akan yin hakan. 

Aminu ya bayyana cewa mayar da martani ba zai haifar da zaman lafiya ba. Babu wanda zai manta gudunmawarsa a samar da zaman lafiya, musamman al’ummar Balkazai. Ta hanyarsa suka samu zaman lafiya. 

Dalikin haka ne aka zabi Aminu ya zama shugaban matasa masu kokarin samar da zaman lafiya a unguwannin guda biyu. Wannan ya zo ne bayan ya je wata horaswa da aka yi masa tare da wasu da suka hada da Grace Moses, shugabar mata a Balkazai, da kungiyar Jos Stakeholders for Peace Centre (JSPC) da ke karkashin kungiyar Search for Common Ground (SCG) ta shirya ta hannun Jacob Choji. 

“Shekara biyu kenan suna horar da mu akan yadda zamu yi idan rikici ya doso. An koya mana cewa idan bamu yafe ba idan an kawo mana farmaki to haka rikicin zai ta zuwa yana dawowa.” 

Hoto: Sherif Aminu

Maryam Monday da take zaune a gefen Balkazai tana daya daga cikin wadanda suka fi kusa da rafin. Ita ce babbar misalin wadanda sukai ta yunkurin neman zaman lafiya a garuruwan. 

Tamkar Aminu, sau da yawa ana kona gidanta amma a haka ta ci gaba da ginawa. A baya, ita yar kasuwa ce da take kawo doya a farashin sari. “Da ina iya cinikin sama da Naira 100,000 a rana,” ta fadawa HumAngle. 

Amma lamura sun tabarbare mata a shekarar 2008 a lokacin da aka kashe mijinta a rikicin Jos. 

A 2010 kuma aka rusa mata wani sashi na gidanta. Monday tana iya tuno lokacin da suka yi gudun fanfalaki don neman tsira tare da yaranta guda biyu yan shekara 10 da 14. A lokacin ragowar yan shekara 17 da 20 basa gida. 

“Zanina na lulluba musu domin na boyesu,” ta bayar da labarin, “a haka suka yi bacci a wannan daren”. 

Abin da bata sani ba shi ne bala’i bai gama riskarta ba. A shekarar 2019, ana tsaka da kokarin kawo zaman lafiya tsakanin unguwannin biyu, danta mai shekara 24 da yake aiki a shagon kwamfuta, ya yi tafiyar da bai kara dawowa ba. An kasheshi! 

Wanda ya kashe wannan matashi bai boye kansa ba, Aminu da Monday suka bada labari. Bayan ya yi wannan ta’asar ya tunkari kanwar wanda ya kashe ya nuna mata wukar da ya yi kisan da ita. 

Bayan wannan ma ya dinga wucewa ta kofar gidansu yana tsokanar mahaifiyar matashin akan dan nata da ya kashe. 

“Jami’an tsaro sun harbeshi a wani fada da aka yi,” inji Aminu. “Da kafin kokarin zaman lafiyarmu ne da hakan zai iya janyo tashin hankali tsakanin al’ummar biyu saboda wanda ya yi kisan musulmi ne. Bamu sani ba ko har yanzu yana da rai ko kuma ya mutu.” 

Monday ta yi amfani da rufin langa-langar da ya yi saura bayan an kona gidanta wajen sake gina gidan da hadin guiwar makota.

“Na yi shawarar gwara na mutu a gidan da na rasa abubuwa da yawa. Ba ni da kudin da zan iya kama haya a wani gidan,” a cewarta.

Ta kara da cewa, “Na ji dadi da na ji cewa an harbi wanda ya kashe dana. Kuma ko ma a ina yake yanzu da zan ganshi zan iya bashi abinci ya ci.” 

Hoto: Mary Monday

Yanzu haka rafin da ya raba wadannan unguwanni cike yake da mata da yara da suke wanki a gefensa. Wasunsu har hawa duwatsun da suke kaiwa Balkazai suke, abin da a da ake ganin tamkar jefa kai ga halaka ne. A Balkazai kuwa ana tattaruwa a kasuwa a yi kasuwancin da babu banbanci a tsakanin al’ummar biyu. 

Duk da wannan ci gaba da aka samu, al’ummar har yanzu a rabe take tsakanin musulmi da kirista. Abin da yake nuna har yanzu ba a samu haduwar da ake da bukata ba. Da sauran rina a kaba. 

“Asarar rai da dukiya ba abu ne da mutane suke saurin mantawa ba,” inji Patrick Emmanuel, wani mazaunin Balkazai tsawon shekara 14. “Muna bi a hankali ne saboda gudun sake faruwar tashin hankali.” 

Amma Bala Yasmet, wanda shi ma wani mazauni ne, yana ganin cewa akwai abubuwan yabawa sosai tun da yanzu mutanen suna iya tsallakowa su yi mu’amala a makotansu. 

Grace Moses, shugabar matan unguwar Balkazai, ta bayyana cewa hanyar samar da zaman lafiya ta hakika ita ce taimakon matasa ta hanyar gwamnati. “Muna bukatar guraren koyon sana’o’i da za su dauke hankali daga rigingimu,” a cewarta. 

Aminu yana tuno wani taro da aka yi na tattaunawar zaman lafiya inda wani yake cewa a baya shi mai hada takalami ne amma tun da ya rasa hannunsa a rikicin baya iya komai. 

“Da muka taru wasu suka bawa wasu shayi da madara. Wadansunsu sun ce sun dade basu sha madara ba,” Aminu ya bayyana. “Rashi ne yake janyo mafi yawan rigingimun, don haka ya kamata a samar musu da hanyoyin samu.” 

Samar da Chanji ta Hanyar Bayar Da Labarai 

Daraktan YIAVHA, Choji, ya bayyana cewa  rikicin Jos ya riski kungiyar lokacin tana jaririya. Lokacin da yake girma, yana iya tuno lokacin da kabilu daban-daban kamar Afizere da Berom ke zaune da Hausawa cikin zaman lafiya babu banbancin addini. 

Bayan shekaru sun ja kuma rikici ya yi yawa sai ya ga ya kamata ya ajiye gwagwarmaya ya kawo maganin matsala. “Na ji kamar ba a yi abubuwa da yawa ba,” inji Choji. “Na ga yadda ake bayar da tallafi amma sai shugabannin wasu kungiyoyin su mayar da su hanyar samun kudinsu ba tare da kawo mafita ba.” 


Sannan Choji ya ga ba a saka matasa a cikin harkokin. “A teburin tattaunawa zai wuya ka ga matasa. Idan ma suna gurin basa magana. Ko sun yi ma sai ka ji kamar karin bayani ne ko kuma gaya musu aka yi su fada. Kuma dai su ne masu zuwa su yi rikicin nan.” 

A shekarar 2010, YIAVHA ta shirya wani tsari da aka kira Faith Plus wanda manyan mutane ke fadawa matasa labarin yadda Jos take kafin a fara rigingimu. 

Yunkurin ya hada da tattara al’ummomin da suke da tarihin rikice-rikice, musamman na kabilanci da na addini. Wadanda aka gayyata ana basu damar su ziyarci guraren da suke kafin rikicin Jos na 2001 ya barke. 

“Ta haka muke fatan kawo canji da mahanga,” inji Choji. 

A tsarin an gano abubuwa da yawa. Misali, sun gano cewa a baya ana bayar da kyautar fili amma yanzu akwai fargabar wanda aka bawa zai iya cinyewa.  

Daya daga wadanda suka bayar da labarin, Sani Lenge, ya ce yana son matasa su fahimci yadda ake rayuwa a baya. 

“Muna iya koyon abubuwa da yawa daga magabatanmu. Ba lallai mu samu wannan labarin tun da ba tambayarsu muke ba,” daya daga wadanda suka amfana, Usman Ibrahim, ya fada. 

Luka Aguda, shi ma da ya amfana da shirin, ya bayyana cewa da farko bai fahimta ba amma daga baya ya gane manufar shirin da a yanzu yake kayatar da shi. 

Akwai wani tsarin na Plurality Intervention da ya tattara a jami’ar Jos. Shi ya hada da labarin da zai iya canja mahangar matasa ne. Duk da haka,YIAVHA na fuskantar matsaloli ta fuskar yadda za ta ci gaba da shirye-shiryenta. Ko ta yaya suke iya hada matasan a guri guda? 

Hoto: Matasa a lokacin shirin horarwa.

Kungiyar ta gano cewa matasa fa ba su ne suke kirkirar rikicin ba. Manyan mutane su ne matsalar. “Saboda wasu lokutan ba a bayar da labarin yadda ya kamata sai ka ga labari ya canja zuwa kamar rikici ne da Hausa/Fulani ke yi da wasu,” Choji ya bayyana. “Akwai matsalolin Berom, Anagauta da Afizere da ya kamata su maa yi maganinsu.” 

Wata babbar matsalar kuma ita ce samuwar gari guda amma da shugabanni biyu daga kabilu biyu. Wannan yana kawo matsala wajen magance rigingimu ta yadda kowane shugaba sai ya dinga neman shi za a yiwa biyayya. Daga nan sai a ce wanda yafi mabiya shi ne cikakken shugaba. 

“Idan ka je garin Musulmi, sai ka ga wani shugaba an nadashi jagora. Za a ce an yarda jagora ne amma sai a ce ga wani kuma wakilin Hausa/Fulani,” inji Choji. 

Ya kara da cewa, “idan aka samu matsala sai a rasa wa za a ce shi ya janyota. To rabuwar kan ta fara daga nan ne kuma wannan ne ya saka matasa a tsakiya. Matashi daga Berom yana tashi da jin cewa ai wani mutum daga Afizere zai kwace masa kasa ne, haka shi ma na Afizere yake ji.” 

Duk da haka, wata nasara da kungiyar ta samu shi ne fadada alakar da ke tsakanin garuruwan ta yadda matasa ke mu’amala da wadanda suke wasu sassan na daban. 

“Mun koyi darasin cewa idan mutane suna zaton ana yi musu rashin adalci, suna tada hakarkari akan komai ma,” inji Choji. 

Kokarin nasu ya samarwa da manyan gobe damar su zama shugabannin da za su iya karfafa alakar zaman lafiya da ke tsakanin addinai. 

Wani labarin na nasara da aka samu shi ne na John Yusuf (ba ainahin sunansa ba kenan) wanda ya dauki makamai a lokacin da ake cikin rikici a garinsu. Bayan ya shiga shirin gyaran mu’amalal sai ya watsar da tsohuwar al’adarsa. 

A wasu garuruwan da YIAVHA ta ziyarta, sun samu cewa ba a barin matasa su yi zabe yadda ya kamata. Maimakon haka sai a ce su yi zabe saboda bangarencin addini. 

“Wannan shi ne abin da labaran suka bayyana, ta yadda matasa su ke samun damar bayar da labaransu,” a cewar Choji. “Akwai abubuwa da yawa da matasa ke fuskanta da ba a fadesu ba. Muna bukatar su fada da kansu.”

Kokarin shiga tsakani da tallafin da kungiyoyin ke bayarwa bai da yawa saboda babu isasshen kudi, don haka suka kirkiri wakilan tattaunawa a tsakanin addinai daga cikin matasa wadanda suke yin kokari da jikinsu ko da ba a samu kudi ba. 

Ta haka ne Aminu da Moses suka zama wakilan zaman lafiya ta karkashin kungiyar Jos Stakeholders Initiative da Choji ke jagoranta. Suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen tara mutane domin a ji labaransu. 

Domin a kawar da nuna yatsa, YIAVHA ta nisanci bayyana abubuwan da take yi a kafafan yada labarai. Choji ya ce hakan ya zama dole ne saboda a kawar da wasu bangare na labaran masu hadari, musamman tun da wasu manyan sun ki yarda su shiga a yi da su. 

Da shirin kungiyar mai suna Intergenerational Storytelling (IGST), YIAVHA ta samu damar zuwa garuruwa sun kai 30. Amma Arewacin Jos ya zama babbar matsala a gurinta saboda suna da kananun garuruwa sun kai 130. 

“In da muna da kudi da mun fadada aikin,”  cewar Choji. Akwai gurare masu muhimmanci kamar Pankshin ko Compang inda har yanzu akwai matsala. Samun kuma tallafin da za a shirya horarwa da shi kuma aiki ne babba. 

Daya daga cikin wadanda suka amfana da shirin IGST, Hafsat Muhammad, ta ce bidiyon da YIAVHA ta samar ya sa ta koyi yadda iyayenta suka zauna lafiya da kiristoci makotanta. 

Hoto: Daya daga cikin wadanda suka amfana da shirin

Wani mazaunin unguwar Shagari da ya shiga shirin ya bayyana yadda ya ji dadin zama da makotansa kiristoci da yadda yake neman zaman lafiya mai dorewa a Jos. 

Abdul Lawal ya bayyana cewa ya ga amfanin zaman lafiya duk da banbancin addini kuma matasa suna da rawar takawa wajen tabbatar da shi. Ya kara da cewa akwai bukatar mutane su ji labarin da ya saurara kuma ya nuna cewa koyarwar na daga cikin abubuwan da za su kawo ci gaba. 

Rahotanni da yawa sun yi sharhin abin da ya janyo rikici a Jos, kuma sun bayyana cewa kokarin neman gurin zama da kuma danniyar siyasa su ne suka janyo rikicin. 

Duk da cewa mai magana da yawun yan sanda na jihar Plateau, ASP Uba Gabriel, ya ce bai san akwai wata kiyayya tsakanin Unguwar Mai Damisa da kuma Balkazai ba, wanda rikicin Jos ne ya haifar da ita, HumAngle ta fahimci cewa baturen yan sanda na ofishin Nassarawa (DPO), Musa Hassan, ya bayar da gudunmawa ta musamman domin tabbatar da zaman lafiya a garuruwan. Hassan yaki yarda ya yi magana akan lamarin saboda bai samu izini daga manyansa ba. 

Duk da haka, ASP Ogaba ya nuna cewa ba a sake samun rikicin addini a yan kwanakin nan ba kuma ya kira al’ummar Jos da su zauna lafiya da junansu.

 


Click here to read the original report in English: The Polarised City (1): How 2 Jos Communities Struggle To Unite After Years Of Crises


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Nathaniel Bivan

Nathaniel Bivan is Features Editor at HumAngle. He tweets @nathanielbivan

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