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Rababben Birni (5): Yadda Mutanen Jos Suka Samu Hanyar Komawa Gida

Mutane da yawa sun bar gidajensu a lokacin rikicin Jos da ya dauke shekaru gommai a Najeriya. A yau suna bayar da labarin yadda suka fita daga halin damuwar tattalin arziki da zamantakewa.

Fassara: Aliyu Dahiru

A Chwelnyap, wani guri da aka fi sani da Congo-Russia, Dang Choji ya shaida yadda aka fara zubar da jinin da shi ne ya janyo rabewar Jos, wani gari mai sanyi a tsakiyar Arewacin Najeriya.

A dai-dai wannan lokaci ne a garin Rukuba, bayan jita-jita ta fara yaduwa, Hamza Uwais ya fito daga masallacin da ya yi sallar Juma’a ya hawo baburinsa.

A wannan rana dai a Tudun Wada kuma, Paul Felix Pam ne yake ta fama da goggonsa da take kokarin hanashi fitowa a lokacin da ya yi niyyar tsayar da ziyarar da ya yi mata don ya koma gurin yan uwansa da suke inda ake zaman dar-dar.

A 7 ga watan Satumbar 2001 ne abin ya faru, kuma zai ci gaba da daukan lokaci mai tsawo kafin al’ummomin da rikicin addini da na kabilanci ya shafa kafin su dawo hayyacinsu.

Tushe

A 7 ga watan Satumbar 2001, Dang Choji ya shaida abin da ya faru daga wajen wani masallaci a Congo-Russia wanda shi ne ya haddasa rikicin na jos da ya hallaka kimanin mutane 1,000. “Kafin rigimar,  akwai wani mukami da aka bawa wani bahaushe, Mukhtar Muhammed, daga Jos ta Arewa, a matsayin mai tsara wani shirin gwamnatin tarayya na rage talauci, wanda wasu daga yan gari suka yi masa hamayya,” a cewarsa. Ya kara da cewa wannan shi ne ya bayar da tushen rikicin.

Rahotanni da yawa sun yi kokarin sharhin abin da ya haddasa rikicin. Wani daga cikinsu ya kwatanta rikicin a matsayin wata rigima kan hakkokin yan asalin gurin irin su kabilun Berom/Angauta/Afizere (BAA) da kuma kabilar Hausa/Fulani akan mallakar kasa da kuma neman mulki.

Wani kuma ya samo cewa “daga tushen abubuwan da suke haddasa rikicin kabilanci a Najeriya shi ne yadda gwamnati kan yi tsare-tsaren da suke wariya ne ga wadanda ba yan asalin guri ba. Hakan ya janyo miliyoyin mutanen da ba za su iya binciko asalinsu daga wannan guri ba ana mayar da su kamar wasu yan kasa masu karamar daraja.”

Yadda Aka Rabasu

Hamza Uwais, wani dan kasuwa da aka haifa kuma ya girma a Unguwar Rukuba, sannan ne a wasan kwallon kafa.

Mahaifinsa, shi ma dan kasuwa da yake sayar da kayan gyaran motoci, irin mutanen nan ne da yake jan kowa a jiki a cikin al’umma. Ana bashi girma sosai a gari. Uwais babba mai bayar da horo ne a kungiyar Jama’atu Nasril Islam (JNI) da take wakiltar musulmi.

Kafin abin takaicin, Uwais ya saba yin murnar bikin Kirsamati da na Sallah tare da abokai da makota a unguwar Rukuba. Mafi yawansu kirista ne da basu ga wani dalili ne tsanar junansu ba.

Abin da ya fara a matsayin jita-jitar rikicin kabilanci da na addini a Jos, nan da nan ya fito fili a gurin Uwais karami; addininsa da yan uwansa su suka zamar masa abin da zai janyo a kai masa hari.

A gida kuwa, Uwais ya hadu da yan uwansa da makotansa Musulmi da Kirista  inda suka tattauna akan yadda za su iya bawa kansu kariya idan rikici ya barke. A wannan dare, yan uwansa basu iya bacci ba saboda suna zaune a inda kiristoci suka fi yawa. Da safe kuma labari mai hadari ya iso – hayaki ya turnuke daga nesa, wani abu mai tsanani na shirin faruwa.

“Mun zauna a gefen Rukuba, wajejen wata mahada,” Uwais ya fadawa HumAngle a wata hira da ya yi a filin Jami’ar Jos (Unijos) inda a yanzu yake yin digirinsa a fannin Ilimin Manya. “Mun ji cewa ana ta kashe Musulmi sannan ana kona gidajensu a Rukuba.”

Uwais babba ya mutu a daidai lokacin da dansa ya kammala jarrabawa gama sakandare a shekarar 2000. A lokacin da rikicin 2001 ya barke shi ne ya hada har da gidan  Uwais.

Wasu Labaran Tashin Hankali…

Lokacin da rikicin ya fara tsamari sai aka saka dokar kulle. Duk da haka jami’an tsaro sun kasa saita lamarin. Abin farin cikin shi ne Uwais da iyalinsa sun tsira. Mai unguwa da sauran kirista makota su ne suka taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen tseratar da su.

Bayan kwana biyu, Musulmi suka fara fita daga Rukuba. Amma makotan Uwais da kirista ne suka yi alkawarin ba za su bari a cutar da su ba. Wannan dalilin ne ya sanya Uwais da yan gidansu suka kara wasu shekaru a Rukuba har zuwa 2008, shekarar da shi kuma Hamza ba zai taba mantawa da ita ba.

A wannan lokaci, abin da ya janyo rigimar ba Congo-Russsia ba ne, daga Dutse-Uku da ke Jos Jarawa ne. “A Rukuba, Musulmi da Kirista suka shiga rigima,” Uwais ya bayar da labari. “Sojoji sun yi kokarin su tseratar da Musulmi wadanda su ne yan kadan kuma an kone gidajensu.”

Hoto: Hamza Uwais da aka kona gidansu a lokacin da aka yi rikicin Jos. Yanzu haka yana da aure har da yaya kuma yana sana’a mai kyau.

A wannan mataki ne Uwais ya san ba su da gurin tsira a Rukuba. Amma bayan yan uwansa sun gudu, shi sai ya tsaya. Abin takaici kuma sai wani ya gano Uwais a boye kuma ya tona cewar yana gida. A lokacin ne ya dauki jakar mahaifiyarsa ya fita a guje bayan an yankeshi a hannu, inda har yanzu ya zama tabo a jikinsa. Daga baya ne ya gano yadda Mai unguwa da sauran kiristoci makota suka yi kokarin dakatar da yan ta’addan amma abin ya ci tura. 

A shekarar 2019, iyalinsa suka nufi su gyara gidansu da aka lalata amma hakan bai yiwu ba. Rikicin 2010 ne ya sanya suka yi canjin gurin zama na din-din-din. Daga lokacin suka yi sallama da gurinsu suka koma gurin da Musulmi suka fi yawa a Nassarawa inda ake kira Yan Shanu.

“Wata babbar hanya ce kawai ta rabamu daga inda muke zaune a baya. Lokacin da ake cikin fargaba, sai al’ummomin biyu su tsaya daga gefen kowace hanya,” cewar Uwais. A yanzu yana siyar da kayan gwanjo ne a kasuwar Katako.

Ta Fuskar Kabilanci

Kamar Uwais, Paul Felix Pam mai shekara 32 ya rasa mahaifinsa a rikicin Jos na farko da aka yi a 2001 da ya koro iyalinsa daga Nassarawa Gwong zuwa Tudun Wada, wani bangare na Jos da Kirista suka fi yawa. 

Ya girma a gidan yawa mai dakuna sama da 20, Pam shi ne na uku a yayan babarsa. Don haka ne ma ya zama wani babba a gida tun yana karami. Shi yasa ma ya dena zuwa makaranta yana shekara 14 ya koma yin aiki a wani kamfanin gine-gine domin ya tallafawa mahaifiyarsa da ba ta yi karatu ba wajen kula da iyali. Daga baya da ya samu kudi sai ya koma karatun.

Hoto: Paul Felix Fam da ya rasa kannensa biyu a rikicin Jos, yanzu haka yana aikin gwamnati.

Kamar Uwais, Pam yana kaunar wasan kwallon kafa don haka ma ya shirya wasa tsakanin Musulmi da Kirista a unguwarsu. Wani lokacin kuma yana taimakawa abokansa Musulmi su yi tallan kayansu a gidajen Kiristoci da basu samu damar iso ba.

A wannan lokacin, goggon Pam tana zaune ne a unguwar Tudun Wada kuma danta yana zuwa ya yi hutu tare da ita. A lokacin da ya dauki wannan dan nata ne don su koma gida rikici ya barke. Bayan sun ga hare-hare a Terminus, su biyun suka gudu Tudun Wada inda Pam ya bayar da labarin abin da ya faru ga goggonsa kafin su kunna rediyo su ji komai.

“A lokacin muka ji an ambaci Congo-Russia da kuma Nassarawa,” cewar Pam. “Na san sai na dawo saboda yan uwana suna zaune a inda Musulmi suka fi yawa.”

Amma hakan bai yiwu ba. Goggon Pam ta rikeshi ta ce masa ya tsaya ya tsira da kansa. A Tudun Wada, an kashe Musulmi da yawa kuma Pam yana jin tsoron kada a afkawa yan uwansa. Kuma karin tashin hankalin shi ne dukansu babu ko mai wayar salula da za a tuntuba.

Saboda haka ne ma gwamnati ta saka dokar kulle ta awa 24 inda daga baya Pam ya koma. A nan ne ya samu labarin yan uwansa sun buya a cocin Baptist dake Nassarawa Gwong, kusa da ofishin yan sanda.

A wannan lokaci an kyale motsi kadan. Sai kuma gwamnan wancan lokaci, Joshua Dariye, ya zagaya yana cewa komai ya koma dai-dai don haka kowa ya koma aiyukansa. Ranar ne yan uwan Pam suka koma gidansu.

“Amma wannan shi ne babban kuskuren da aka yi,” Pam ya tuna. “Saboda a washegari aka zubar da jini sosai. Hayaki ya turnike Jos a safiyar washegari. Har yau ban taba ganin duhu tamkar hadari irin wannan ba. Yan daba suka yi amfani da wannan dama suka dinga kai hare-hare. An kashe mutane kuma an kona gidaje.”

Hoto: Moreen Mulgai na daya daga cikin wadanda suka ci gaba da zama a inda musulmi suka fi yawa duk da su kirista ne. Basu da shirin canja gurin zama saboda suna zaune lafiya da makota.

Maharan ba a ganesu ta fuskarsu ba sannan ba su taba wasu kabilun kamar Yarabawa ba. Yan gari ne dai aka kashe. Daga baya wannan bangarencin kabilanci shi ne ya kare iyalin Pam saboda a cikinsu akwai yan kabilar Berom.

Lokacin da yan daban na shirin kone gidansu Pam, sun yi ta muhawara ta wajen mintuna talatin da makotan gidan wadanda Hausawa ne Musulmi da suka hana baki su kona gidan. A wannan yanayi ne aka jiwa daya daga makotan Pam ciwo.

Pam yana da wani kawu da yake tare da su a lokacin har ya bawa yan gidan shawarar kada su fita. Amma da maharan suka jefa wasu abubuwan fashewa a kwalabe sai mazauna gidan suka yi yunkurin fitowa. Daga karshe suka gano biyu daga kannen Pam suna daga ciki sun buya a karkashin gado.

A wannan lokaci, makotansu yarabawa su ne suka dinga taimakon yan uwan Pam suna haurawa ta kan katanga. A lokacin ne kawun Pam ya bayyana ga maharan amma ya gudu ya bar yara biyu a bayansa. Da ya dawo da motar yan sanda ya riga ya makara. Yaron ya mutu a karkashin gado ita kuma yarinyar ta mutu ne bayan kwana uku a asibiti.

Pam da yan uwansa na kusa dole suka fara sabuwar rayuwa inda suka musanya gidansu da na wasu Hausawa da su ma an kona wani sashinsa a Tudun Wada.

Kayan sawa kuma cocin Baptist ce ta bawa yayan gidan. “Ina tuna lokacin da na samu wanduna guda biyar da kuma katifa,” cewar Pam.

A yanzu Pam yana aikin gwamnati yana tattare abin da ya rage musu na rayuwa tare da sauran iyalinsa.

Ta Fuskar Tattalin Arziki

Akwai labarai dayawa daga tsofaffin yan gari kamar su Margaret U. Daniel da ta tsira daga rikice-rikice har shekarar 2010. Iyalinta su bakwai sai da suka canja gurin zama zuwa Busabiji daga Ali Kazaure a unguwar Dalliop, wani sashi da kirista ne suka fi yawa a ciki amma kewaye da Musulmi. Su sun yi nasara ma a lokacin da masu kona gidajen suka ce musu su fita kafin su kunna wuta.

Har yanzu ana siyar da konannun gidaje a Ali Kazaure. Amma Uwargida Daniel da iyalinta sun ki su siyar da nasu akan farashin da ta ce yan tsabobin miliyon biyu, duk da makotanta na da wasu sun siyar a farashin da bai gaza Naira miliyan 1.1 zuwa 1.5 ba.

Mijin Uwargida Daniel ya yi ritaya ita kuma ta yi kokarin yin sana’o’in da basu da riba kamar na siyar da kayan abinci. “Da kyar muke cin abinci sau biyu a raina, amma mun gobe Allah,” ta fadawa HumAngle.

Akwai kuma Tongryang Christabel Dika yar shekara 32 da yan uwanta suka bar Unguwar Kade, ita ma a Ali Kazaure, suka koma Busabiji bayan an kona gidansu a 17 ga Janairun 2010.

Dika ma wani iyali ne mai mata biyu da kuma bazawara daya da take sharar coci. Tongrayang da ita ce babbarsu yanzu yar kasuwa ce.

Hoto: Bilyaminu Lawal yanzu haka yana digrinsa na uku a wata Jami’a a birnin Berlin na Kasar Jamus. Yana yiwa kansa kirari da bahaushen bayerabe.

Wasu daga mazauna Jos kamar Bilyamin Lawal mai shekara 35 sun canja mazauni daga Rukuba zuwa Rikkos bayan rikicin 2002 ya raba garin. Bayeraben Musulmi ne da ya kware a harshen Hausa har ya yiwa kansa lakabi da ya zama cikakken bahaushe.

Yan uwan Lawal, kamar wasu irinsu, sun yi musanyen gida inda suka koma wani gida da ba a karasa gininsa ba. Bashi da ko kofa bare taga. “Har yanzu muna kokarin mun karasa ginin,” a cewarsa. “Mun yi kokari mu ciyar kuma mu tufatar da kanmu, kafin kuma mu hada kan iyalinmu mu dawo gidan kanmu.”

Da yake yana da son karatu, Lawal ya yi kokari sosai wajen biyan kudin makarantarsa a jami’ar Jos inda ya yi digirinsa na farko da na biyu a fannin addini da falsafa. Bayan shekara hudu kuma ya samu gurbin karatu a jami’ar Freie dake birnin Berlin na kasar Jamus har yake karantar halayyar dan adam a muhallinsa (Anthropology) a matakin digiri na uku.

Mahangar Masanin Tushen Dan Adam

Duk da shi ma yana daga cikin wadanda abin ya hada da su, Lawal ya yi bayanin yanayin Jos ta fuskar masana.

“Ina tunanin kamar wani fada ne saboda muhalli na Jos, ko na Plateau ko ma na Najeriya, kuma yana da alaka da yanayinmu ne a kasar,” inji Lawal. “Muna tunanin Najeriya za ta yi mana abu ne ba wai me zamu yi wa Najeriya ba. Duk lokacin da muka samu muhalli to muna jin namu ne kuma ba ma son wani ya sameshi.”

Ya kara da bayyana cewa kokarin neman muhalli ne ya janyo ake nunawa wasu mutanen wariya saboda kowa yana tunanin abinsa ne. “Shi yasa dan Arewa ba ya iya kokarin ya karbi wanda ba Bahaushe ba ko Musulmi. Sannan kasancewar Jos a Arewa da ta cika da wadanda ba Hausawa ba kuma ba Musulmi ba, sai ya janyo mutane suke zaune da irin wannan tunanin a zuciyarsu. Daga nan matsalar ta samu,” cewar Lawal.

Ya nuna cewa wannan yana mafuskantar addini da ta kabila. Amma asalin abin da ya haddasa rikicin kabilanci ne, sai dai tun da ana ganin wasu kabilun na Musulmi ne sai abin ya zama sha’anin addini.

Lawal ya dauki kansa a matsayin misali: “Misali, ni nafi zama kamar bahaushe ba don na zo daga Arewa ba, sai don muna addini iri daya da su.”

“Don haka duk lokacin da zaka yi tunanina ba zaka tunoni a bayerabe ba sai dai bahaushe. Duk lokacin da na samu hausawa a guri to sai na zama kamarsu. Don haka matsalar take da fuskoki da yawa. Rikicin Jos yana da alaka da sha’anin muhalli don kowane bangare yake kokarin yafi karfin daya.”


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Nathaniel Bivan

Nathaniel Bivan is Regional Editor Northwest/Central and Head of Solutions Journalism Desk at HumAngle. He tweets @nathanielbivan

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